## Key Takeaway:

- Measuring risk in investment is crucial to make informed decisions. By understanding different types of risks and methods to measure them, investors can minimize losses and maximize returns.
- Market risk is the risk of price fluctuations in the market or a particular asset. It can be measured through various methods, including historical simulation and Monte Carlo simulation.
- Credit risk is the risk of default on a financial obligation. It can be measured through credit ratings, credit spreads, and credit default swaps.
- Liquidity risk is the risk of not being able to sell an asset on time or at a fair price. It can be measured through bid-ask spreads, liquidity ratios, and trading volumes.
- Methods for measuring risk include standard deviation, beta coefficient, and VaR (Value at Risk). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and should be used in conjunction with other risk measures.

Are you concerned about investing safely? Knowing how to measure the risk associated with your investments can help you make informed decisions and safeguard your future. Let’s delve into understanding the risk involved in investment and how you can manage it.

## Importance of measuring risk in investment

**Measuring risk** is crucial when investing your money. Assessing the potential danger of an investment is necessary to ensure that you are making an informed decision. *Without evaluating risk, you may end up putting your money in unsafe investments*. By measuring risk, you can avoid losses and gain returns.

One way to measure risk is by analyzing the asset’s **volatility**. A volatile asset is one that experiences frequent and significant price fluctuations, resulting in a higher risk. Additionally, conducting thorough research into a company’s financial stability, management style, and growth potential can provide insight into its risk level.

It is also important to consider **diversification**. Investing in a mix of assets lowers overall risk as you are exposed to a broader range of markets. Additionally, regularly monitoring your investments and adjusting your portfolio accordingly based on market trends can minimize potential risk.

*Image credits: retiregenz.com by Joel Duncun*

## Types of risks in investment

Investments come with risks. To know them, you need to learn about **market, credit, and liquidity risks**. Knowing the potential effects of these can help you make an investment plan that suits your aims. In this part on types of risks in investing, we’ll look into each one. This’ll help you reduce your risks and make wise decisions.

*Image credits: retiregenz.com by Adam Duncun*

### Market risk

One of the most significant sources of risk in investments is the fluctuation of market values, commonly known as **Market Volatility**. This can be affected by various factors like shifts in political conditions, economic events, or international occurrences. *Market risk* is an essential factor to evaluate as it determines the possibility of incurring losses during a strategic investment decision.

To handle market risks, investors need to take measures such as **diversification** – spreading their assets across different markets and institutions. Additionally, investors can also use hedging methods like buying put options and derivatives to limit downside losses if the investment fails. By conducting proper research and due diligence on specific industries before entering or exiting a position, investors can overcome some market risks.

Investors must remember that there are other types of risks involved in times of Investment such as Credit Risk or Liquidity risks next to market volatility. Hence it is vital for them to do consistent monitoring using detailed research methodologies and statistical tools to assess possible outcomes accurately. This allows them to make better-informed decisions leveraging market insights while minimizing their potential exposure towards various kinds of financial turbulence.

Finally, Investors must always have patience and avoid making impulsive investments *‘after’* considering all aspects related to risks involved with any strategic decision-making process affecting their portfolio positively/negatively will benefit them hugely over time.

**Investing is like walking into a haunted house- you never know what risks are lurking around the corner.**

#### Definition

The concept of market risk refers to the potential loss that investors might face due to unexpected changes in financial markets. This risk is a common concern for every investor and can arise due to various reasons such as economic instability, political uncertainty, interest rate fluctuations, etc.

To understand market risk in more depth, it can be categorized into four main types: systematic risk, unsystematic risk, interest rate risk, and inflationary risk. **Systematic risk** arises from general events affecting the market as a whole while **unsystematic risks** are specific to individual companies or industries. **Interest rate risks** arise when there is an unexpected change in interest rates while **inflationary risks** refer to the impact of inflation on investments.

It’s crucial for investors to assess the level of market risk they are willing to take before investing their money in any investment opportunity. By analyzing different types of risks associated with an investment strategy, investors can make informed decisions about where they want to invest their money. Being aware of these market risks can help mitigate potential losses and increase the chances of profitable returns.

Investors who ignore the presence of market risks may miss out on opportunities that are less risky but have high-profit potentials. As such, it’s important for investors not to let fear hold them back from taking calculated risks and exploring different investment options. By keeping themselves informed about market trends and associated risks at all times, investors will be better able to navigate the ups and downs of financial markets and increase their chances of success.

*Measuring market risk is like trying to weigh a fart – it’s tricky, uncertain, and the results might stink.*

#### How to measure

To determine the quantitative value of market risk, we can use specific methodologies. Here’s a concise guide on how to quantify it:

- Identify potential sources of risk – define the types of market risks that are prominent in your investment plan.
- Determine sensitivity to market changes – analyze the impact that shifts in market conditions will have on the risk profile.
- Calculate
**Value at Risk (VaR)**– this measures the maximum amount of loss that an investor could expect from given portfolios within a specified period and confidence level. - Use
*Stress Testing & Tail Risk Analysis*– consider unexpected events that can significantly influence risk levels.

Knowing these essential steps is critical, but be aware of additional factors to consider when calculating your risk profile. These may include country-specific exposure, individual assets choice, trade volumes, and other portfolio metrics. It’s crucial to tackle all potential areas of uncertainty and leave no stone unturned!

**Credit risks can turn your investment into a non-payment plan**.

### Credit risk

Risk posed to investors by the possibility of default on a debt instrument is known as **Debtor’s risk**. The investor’s principal or interest may not be repaid as promised in the event of a default. This risk includes both private and public sector borrowers, due to insolvency or bankruptcy.

The debtor’s creditworthiness is the primary factor that affects creditor performance. Several factors, such as credit rating, history of payment defaults, susceptibility to external factors like economic issues or supervisory policy alterations, influence creditworthiness analysis. The *valuation methods adopted are either quantitative or metaphysical strategies*.

When determining credit risk in investing, it is essential to make informed judgments based on extensive research. Also, diversification can aid in lowering an investor’s exposure to default through several businesses and debtors.

Investors should evaluate their sensitivity to credit risk concerning their investment objectives holistically. Individual investors’ necessities will not be identical compared with private institutional investors or corporations with abundant resources. Advisory services often **customise services and offer tailored portfolios** that match a client’s needs while aligning investment risk with financial obligations goals.

Therefore, the evaluation of credit risk associated with investment instruments must always consider its likelihood and severity when implementing investment facilities. Ultimately, prudent portfolio management necessitates ongoing monitoring and assessment of evolving prospects and threats against established objectives and restrictions.

Investment is like a box of chocolates – you never know what risk you’re gonna get.

#### Definition

**Understanding the intricacies of credit risk is crucial for investors seeking to optimize their investment portfolios.** Credit risk is the potential for a borrower or counterparty to fail to meet their financial obligations, leading to default or delayed payments. This risk can lead to significant losses in an investor’s portfolio, making it crucial to be aware of all types of risks related to investments.

In terms of investing, credit risk can take many forms. One common type of credit risk is **default risk**, meaning the borrower fails to abide by the terms and conditions agreed upon in the contract. Another type is spread risk, indicating changes in interest rates might lead to bondholders suffering losses due to changes in the interest rate environment. Investors must assess each type of investment for its related risks before making investment decisions.

Investors should also consider other factors that could impact credit risk, including economic events and geopolitical situations. For example, during global economic downturns, companies may suffer from declining revenues and struggle with debt repayment, leading them into default zones. As a result, various rating agencies have emerged worldwide that analyze borrowers’ credit ratings and provide a gauge for informed investment decisions concerning bond offerings.

According to Moody’s Investor Services, as per a recent report (source: Investing.com), global non-financial companies pandemic-era downgrades have surged ahead surpassing 2009 levels when the financial crisis unfolded.

**Therefore it becomes important for investors to keep these additional risks in mind while analyzing their portfolios’ potential returns and diversifying them given budgetary limits and acceptable levels of possible associated risks.**

*Measuring credit risk is like measuring the distance between you and your ex – it’s always changing and you never know when it’s going to hit you in the face.*

#### How to measure

To determine the magnitude and likelihood of risks in investments, assessing various metrics is crucial. To better understand ‘How to measure’ these risks, a few essential steps can be followed:

**Identify the Types of Risks**– Determine the potential types of risks such as credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk or operational risk.**Identify and Evaluate Risk Exposure**– Measure how much exposure one has towards each type of hazard and how significant it can impact their investments.**Analyze Historical Data**– Leverage data analytics to study past trends and assess how likely each risk can occur in the future.**Calculate Risk Metrics**– Use quantitative models to ensure that all possible outcomes have been taken into account while estimating the potential risks involved in an investment.**Monitor & Review**– Regularly evaluate if the risks are changing, reducing, or increasing.

It’s important to keep in mind that these steps vary depending on the investment type and goals ‘How to measure’ may differ accordingly.

Many factors influence an investment’s level of risk; hence investors must consider every metric while assessing any possible hazards. For instance, evaluating high volatility ETFs without adequate research can lead to substantial losses for any investor.

In summary, analyzing investments make more sense when there is a clear set of metrics considered and calculated at the initial stage itself rater than having post-investment regrets. Let me give you an example; suppose **AB company** invested heavily in cryptocurrency without considering shifting regulations against it, causing massive losses ultimately costing them depreciation on other stocks too. Therefore planning ahead could save resources and safeguard investments towards a brighter financial future.

Hope you brought a straw, because this liquidity risk is one tall glass of uncertainty.

### Liquidity risk

Investing in assets that cannot be easily sold or converted into cash without incurring significant loss is a type of **liquidity risk**. This can happen when there is *low trading volume or no buyers for specific securities*. Investors who experience this risk have to either hold on to their investments, sell them at a lower price or incur additional costs to liquidate them.

Liquidity risk can occur due to several reasons like sudden changes in market conditions, investor panic, or regulatory changes. Investors can prevent liquidity risks by ensuring they have sufficient cash reserves and a well-diversified portfolio with highly liquid assets. This helps investors meet their financial obligations immediately, preventing substantial losses.

*Pro Tip:* Develop an emergency cash fund so that you can utilize it when needed, and avoid withdrawing money from long-term investments during market downturns.

*Investing is like Russian roulette, but instead of a gun, you have a portfolio.*

#### Definition

Investments are exposed to various types of risks, and **liquidity risk** is one prominent risk that investors should consider. It refers to the possibility of losing money or not being able to access cash when required due to a lack of market demand for certain assets. Investments in illiquid assets such as real estate and private placements are considered **more vulnerable to this type of risk**.

To mitigate liquidity risks, **diversifying investments across different asset classes** can help reduce exposure to one particular asset’s illiquidity. Maintaining an emergency fund ensures that cash is available at any time without having to sell investments in a depressed market. Additionally, investing in liquid securities, such as **exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and mutual funds**, increases access to immediate cash.

It’s essential to appreciate that liquidity risk can have severe negative consequences for investments and portfolios. To avoid this risk, it’s crucial for investors to **carefully analyze how easily they can access their invested assets** before making commitments or crafting investment strategies.

**A tape measure won’t cut it when it comes to measuring liquidity risk, but thankfully there are other tools at our disposal**.

#### How to measure

**Measuring liquidity risk** is an essential element in investment analysis. Investors must gauge the **level of risk** they are willing to undertake to ensure the **right return** on their investment. Here’s a **4-step process** that can assist you in measuring liquidity risks:

- Begin by identifying assets with potential
*liquidity risks*and those without such risks. - Calculate the spread between
*high-risk, low-liquidity investments*with*low-risk, high-liquidity options*. - Analyze expected
**cash flows**from your investment portfolio to predict liquidity issues that may arise. - Assess market trends for indicators of shifting liquidity concerns and adjust your investment strategy accordingly.

In addition to these steps, investors need to keep track of any changes in legislation, financial regulations or geopolitical factors that could impact their investments.

Investors should not overlook measuring their liquidity risks as it can lead to poor investment decisions and significant losses. Don’t miss out on optimizing your returns by measuring and mitigating your liquidity risks before investing.Measuring risk is like taking a shot in the dark, except the bullet might hit your wallet instead of a target.

## Methods for measuring risk

Gaining clarity on investment risks? It’s imperative to comprehend the various methods for measuring them. Let’s have a look at **standard deviation, beta coefficient and VaR (Value at Risk)**. We’ll examine each one’s effectiveness and constraints.

*Image credits: retiregenz.com by Yuval Arnold*

### Standard deviation

The measure of variation or deviation from an investment’s average return is known as **Deviation Average**. It indicates *how the investment’s price varies over a certain period*, giving us an idea of its risk. It is often used by investors to compare two investments with similar returns, where the one with a lower standard deviation is considered **less risky**.

To calculate it, we need to first compute the mean return of an investment over a fixed time duration. We then find the difference between each return and its corresponding mean. These deviations are squared and added together. The total sum is divided by the total number of observations and then square-rooted to find out the standard deviation.

A crucial point to note with this method of measuring risk is that it assumes a **normal distribution pattern**, which may not always be true in reality. Hence relying solely on this metric can be dangerous while making investment decisions.

**Pro Tip:** Understanding standard deviation and its limitations can help you avoid mistakes while gauging your investment risk. It would help if you used multiple measures for thorough evaluation.

*Defining risk in investment is like trying to catch a greased pig – it’s slippery, unpredictable, and might just end up getting away from you.*

#### Definition

**Standard deviation** is a powerful tool used to measure the degree of variation from the average in a given dataset. It serves as a key metric for assessing risks and calculating probabilities, helping individuals and organizations make informed decisions. Through statistical analysis, it provides insights into the potential impacts of different outcomes, enabling better risk management strategies.

By examining the variability of data points around the mean value, standard deviation helps identify patterns and trends that may otherwise remain hidden. A high standard deviation indicates that data points are widely spread out from the mean, indicating higher levels of uncertainty or volatility. On the other hand, a low standard deviation suggests that data points are closely grouped around the mean, indicating more stable conditions with less risk.

One important consideration when using standard deviation as a risk assessment tool is ensuring that it is appropriate for the particular context or situation. Other factors such as correlation, skewness, and kurtosis can also impact risk calculations and should be taken into account.

Missing out on using standard deviation as part of a comprehensive risk management strategy could result in missed opportunities or costly mistakes. By understanding how this powerful metric can inform decision-making processes, individuals and organizations can increase their chances of success while minimizing adverse effects. Don’t let fear hold you back – use standard deviation to your advantage today!

*Even standard deviation can’t measure the risk of reading this article on a Monday morning.*

#### Advantages and disadvantages

Measuring risk through Standard Deviation can have varying implications. Some factors need deliberation before deciding whether it is advantageous or disadvantageous.

**Advantages:***Standard deviation offers a precise measurement of an investment’s volatility.**It is useful for comparing risk levels of different investments and helps develop diversified portfolios.**It can be used in regression analysis to determine the correlation between two variables.**It is easy to calculate and interpret.***Disadvantages:***Standard deviation doesn’t distinguish between positive and negative deviations, so it treats both equally.**It may not always represent actual market conditions as it is calculated using past data and cannot predict future trends accurately.**Different securities with similar standard deviations may have drastically different risks, leading to flawed comparison analysis.**The risk estimation from Standard Deviation assumes that the statistical distribution of returns is symmetrical, though financial returns often follow a non-symmetric log-normal distribution.*

Moreover, understanding the limitations or positive implications may depend on individual preferences based on their ability and willingness to take risks.

An investor losing out on potential returns could be paramount if one doesn’t grasp the advantages and disadvantages of measuring risk through standard deviation. Thus, having a clear analytical perspective before making investment decisions is highly recommended.

Calculating beta coefficients – because what’s life without a little bit of risk?

### Beta coefficient

Investors measure market risk by calculating the volatility of an investment’s returns relative to a benchmark. One way they do this is by using a measure called **covariance**. However, calculating covariance can be complex and time-consuming, so analysts turn to a more straightforward metric known as the **Beta coefficient**. It measures the sensitivity of an asset or a portfolio compared to the market as a whole, making it easier for investors to assess their investment risk.

By comparing an asset’s returns with those of the overall market, analysts can determine whether it is more volatile than average or less so. In other words, if an asset has a beta of one, it moves in tandem with the market; if its beta is less than one, it is less volatile than the market as a whole; and if its beta is greater than one, it is more volatile.

One significant advantage of using Beta coefficients in measuring investment risk is that traders can use them to optimize their portfolios by reducing exposure to excessively risky assets while increasing exposure to potentially profitable ones.

Investors often make use of **Beta coefficients** when investing in mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). For example: if two funds have similar past performance rates but different betas values – then choosing have lower Beta might decrease potential losses during bear markets.

**John Smith** invested in two companies- **Company A** had higher returns on average with high volatility than **company B** which gave consistent but low returns. By looking at their respective betas, he realized that company A was riskier due to its Beta being higher than 1 whereas company B had a lower beta score indicating lesser volatility and hence lower risk. He decided not to put all his eggs in one basket and invested some amount from his portfolio into both companies to balance out his risks.

*“Risk is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you’re gonna get – but with the right methods, you can measure how likely it is you’ll get a toothache.”*

#### Definition

**Beta coefficients** are methods used in finance to measure the level of risk of an investment. These coefficients represent the volatility of a security or portfolio concerning the overall market’s performance. By analyzing beta, investors can make informed decisions on whether to invest in assets that are high-risk, low-risk or market-neutral. Beta values can range from negative figures indicating inverse correlation to positive numbers that represent similar movements in price to the market.

It’s crucial to note that beta is not a perfect gauge of risk and doesn’t account for all types of risks such as credit/default risks, liquidity risks, and event risks. The higher the beta, the riskier the security. Beta coefficients are also used to calculate returns in relation to changes in risk and asset pricing models.

One unique aspect of using beta coefficient is its capacity to assist investors in constructing portfolios tailored individually according to their preferences by selecting varying degrees of risky investments.

According to **Investopedia**, “The average beta for the market is 1.0; however, some stocks may have betas below 1.0 since they tend be less volatile than average shares.”

Therefore, *one must understand how a specific stock reacts concerning general market activity before investing or use it as a tool when predicting future trends by using historical data analysis on specific securities’ betas.*

**Risk measurement methods:** bet on them if you dare, but be prepared for both the rewards and the potential drawbacks.

#### Advantages and disadvantages

Measuring the risk associated with investments using beta coefficients carries both pros and cons.

**Advantages:**

- Provides a measure of systematic risk that can be used for asset pricing models.
- Allows investors to compare the risk of different stocks or portfolios.
- Captures the correlation between the stock’s return and market return and adjusts for diversifiable risk.
- Assists in creating diversified portfolios based on the investor’s risk appetite.
- Helpful in determining the expected returns on investment in different market conditions.

There are also disadvantages that must be considered:

**Disadvantages:**

- Beta coefficients are derived from historical data, which may not accurately predict future market trends.
- Ignores non-linear relationships between stock returns and market returns, leading to an inaccurate representation of risk.
- Inability to account for events outside of market movement, such as changes in company leadership or technological innovations affecting a single company’s performance.
- The interpretation of beta is often misunderstood and misleading.

In addition, it should be noted that beta alone cannot provide a complete picture of potential investment risks due to its inherent limitations.

According to Investopedia, “A high beta indicates higher movement relative to an index while low beta denotes lower volatility.”

**4.3 VaR: Where your worst nightmares come true, but at least you can put a number on it.**

### VaR (Value at Risk)

When measuring risk in investment, one important method is assessing the **VaR**. This determines the maximum amount of loss that may occur given a specific timeframe and statistical confidence level. It helps investors manage the downside risk of their portfolio by setting limitations.

**VaR** takes into account market volatility, asset price correlations, and historical return distributions. It provides effective risk management by encouraging investors to diversify their portfolios to mitigate potential losses.

To accurately measure **VaR**, it’s essential to utilize advanced mathematical and statistical analysis techniques. Various software and tools are available in the market that can help investors calculate and interpret **VaR** effectively.

In addition to **VaR**, other methods such as expected shortfall, sensitivity analysis, stress testing, and scenario analysis can also provide insight into possible risks within an investment portfolio.

Don’t miss out on effectively managing your investment risk through comprehensive risk measurement methods like **VaR**. Use these techniques to make informed decisions and safeguard your portfolio’s value against potential market turbulence.

*Risk management – because sometimes taking risks is just a little too risky.*

#### Definition

Assessing financial risk is crucial for any organization, and **VaR (Value at Risk) modeling** is one of the most widely used methods for measuring such risk.

**Value at Risk or VaR**estimates the maximum loss that an investment portfolio or trading book can incur over a specific time period with a given level of confidence.- VaR uses statistical models to determine potential losses based on the
*probability distribution of historical returns, market trends, and volatility*. - The most common approach to calculating VaR is
**historical simulation**which estimates potential losses by analyzing past price changes in assets. Other methods include**parametric**and**Monte Carlo simulation**techniques. - While VaR measures potential downside risk, it does not account for extreme events such as market crashes or financial crises.

VaR is a valuable tool to assess and monitor financial risk with its mathematical rigor and practical applicability. However, it should be used in conjunction with other risk management strategies to provide a comprehensive approach to identifying and addressing potential risks.

**Pro Tip:** Remember that VaR is just one metric for assessing financial risk; investors should also consider other factors like liquidity, diversification, and correlation when evaluating their portfolios.

**VaR may not be a crystal ball, but it sure knows how to predict the future of financial risk – whether we like it or not.**

#### Advantages and disadvantages

Expounding on the use of **VaR (Value at Risk)** for measuring risk poses unique advantages and drawbacks.

- One major advantage is that it is a comprehensive method, which enables risk managers to assess potential losses across all asset classes.
- An added advantage is that VaR uses
**statistical models and probability distribution**to estimate the scale of potential loss, thus giving a structured approach to risk management. - However, one of its significant disadvantages is that it relies on historical data, and does not account for black swan events or unpredictable market disruptions.
- Another disadvantage is that VaR only attempts to measure potential losses within a predetermined level of confidence (say 95% or 99%). It hence cannot capture more exceptional losses beyond this predetermined confidence level.
- Furthermore, VaR treats all risks as equal. The allocation of capital and resources based on such an assumption may result in an overemphasis on less harmful risks or underestimation of critical ones.
- Finally, computational limitations may arise while calculating complex portfolios with multiple assets or illiquid securities with limited pricing history.

While calculating VaR, multiple factors like liquidity requirements, capital adequacy and counterparty risks should be taken into consideration.

Efficient use of VaR requires careful assessment of data quality and reliability resulting in improved estimation qualities. Additionally including unobservable model variables like macroeconomic indicators can result in better outcomes.

Measuring risk in investments may sound boring, but trust me, you’ll be thanking VaR for warning you before your portfolio crashes and burns.

## Five Facts About How To Measure Risk In Investment:

**✅ Risk in investment refers to the potential for financial loss or underperformance.***(Source: Investopedia)***✅ The most common metric used to measure risk in investment is standard deviation.***(Source: The Street)***✅ Other factors to consider when measuring risk in investment include the overall market conditions, company-specific factors, and geopolitical risks.***(Source: Forbes)***✅ Diversification is a popular risk management strategy that involves investing in a variety of assets to reduce overall risk.***(Source: NerdWallet)***✅ Risk tolerance varies among investors and is influenced by factors such as age, income, and investment goals.***(Source: The Balance)*

## FAQs about How To Measure Risk In Investment?

### What is risk in investment?

Risk in investment refers to the possibility of losing money, not achieving expected returns, or experiencing unexpected variations in investment performance. It is the uncertainty associated with the future outcomes of an investment.

### How to measure risk in investment?

One of the most common ways to measure risk in investment is by calculating standard deviation. It is a statistical measure that calculates the amount of variation or dispersion from the expected return over a period of time. Another way is by using the beta coefficient which measures the volatility of an investment in comparison to the market.

### What are the different types of investment risks?

There are different types of investment risks including market risk, credit risk, inflation risk, interest rate risk, and political risk. Market risk is the risk of loss due to market fluctuations, credit risk is the risk of default by a borrower, inflation risk is the risk of loss due to decreases in purchasing power, interest rate risk is the risk of loss due to changes in interest rates, and political risk is the risk of loss due to political instability.

### How can investors manage risk in investment?

Investors can manage risk in investment by diversifying their portfolio. Diversification means investing in a variety of different assets or securities to reduce the risk of losing money in one area. Another way to manage risk is by investing in low-risk assets or securities, such as bonds or money market funds.

### What is the importance of measuring risk in investment?

Measuring risk in investment is important because it helps investors make informed decisions based on how much risk they are willing to take on. It also allows investors to compare different investments and determine which ones are more or less risky than others.

### What are the limitations of measuring risk in investment?

There are limitations to measuring risk in investment, as no method can completely predict or account for all potential outcomes. Additionally, risk can be affected by external factors, such as changes in the economy or unexpected events, that are difficult to predict. Therefore, investors should not rely solely on risk measures to make investment decisions and should also consider other factors, such as the investment goals and personal preferences.